Throughout his life, a person is constantly in motion. Therefore, you can quickly and effectively adapt to environmental changes, understand the world, move around and carry out daily activities. However, any movement of the body will put a certain load on the musculoskeletal system, which may become a traumatic situation, leading to premature wear and tear of the joints. This is how arthritis occurs-one of the most common diseases on earth. Despite its widespread popularity, not everyone knows its main manifestations and dangers, which is why they seek medical help in the later stages. This can lead to serious health problems, even disability. Going to a specialist in time can help you avoid these troubles, because experienced doctors will conduct a thorough diagnosis, allowing you to detect pathological changes at an early stage.
Arthropathy is a joint disease of degenerative dystrophic nature, with the slow growth of cartilage structure and the growth of bone tissue. Due to these pathological changes, the affected joints deform, their mobility is impaired and severe pain syndrome occurs. According to official statistics, 10% to 20% of people in the world suffer from this disease. These are very important indicators, and they are increasing every year. In the process of aging, the musculoskeletal system will undergo age-related changes, which are characteristic of most people over 80 years of age. However, only a small percentage of people go to the doctor and prefer to self-medicate. It is this method that significantly worsens the prognosis of rehabilitation and also increases the chance of disability.
This disease occurs in roughly the same way in men and women.The risk group is expressed as:
- Women are over 50 years old and men are over 40 years old.
- People with a history of endocrine disorders and chronic arthritis.
- People who are engaged in heavy manual labor or occupations that require long periods of inactivity.
- Professional athletes (especially weightlifters and those involved in traumatic sports).
There are severalClassificationjoint: Depends on origin, clinical form and location. Each has its clinical significance, and in practice it is most necessary to classify them according to the location of the disease.
Lower extremity arthropathy
- Hip joint disease-The most dangerous and difficult to move species. Due to the anatomical characteristics of the joint structure, the rapid development of degenerative dystrophy and the damage of the muscle-ligament device occur here. When inflammation is added, there will be a complete or partial immobility effect. This pathology usually occurs due to the presence of congenital dysplasia, dislocation and osteochondrosis. It manifests as pain (at first in the evening and at night, but then becomes permanent, radiating to the groin and buttocks area) and forced postures of the lower limbs.
- ankle-It often happens because the ankle is forced to bear a heavy load every day. As a result, he is often injured, leading to degeneration. Ankle joint disease usually has no obvious symptoms, but as the disease progresses, physical activity will cause soreness. Then the pain becomes persistent, the movement is stiff and completely immobile (rarely, in the absence of timely and adequate treatment).
- Knee joint diseaseIt is the most common species. The knee has the greatest load, so it is more likely to be injured than others. There are several types: patella femoris and tibia femoris. The first happened after the patellofemoral joint was injured. In the initial stage, it is asymptomatic because the joints have a lot of cartilage responsible for shock absorption. Their presence can prevent bone damage. Later, patients began to notice knee pain after physical activity, and this pain gradually became permanent (usually worse when the weather changed). Synovitis usually joins the pathology and is characterized by intense, almost unbearable soreness. Tibiofemoral types are rarely diagnosed and have a more favorable prognosis. The pain is different and radiates to the lower body (usually to the feet).
- heel-After injury or illness, changes in degenerative dystrophy can be observed in the subtalar joint or talar navicular joint area. It will not be clinically manifested for a long time, but over time, pain begins to appear.
Upper limb arthropathy
SuchPositioning of the diseaseThe frequency is lower than that of the lower limbs. it:
- Shoulder joint disease.Usually, it occurs after professional athletes are injured and in the context of minor trauma. Sometimes, people whose occupations are related to manual labor are diagnosed. The acromion type of the disease is the result of injury and inflammation. Initially, it proceeds unconsciously, but as it progresses, a painful sensation will appear in the injured shoulder area. The patient noticed the limitation of movement and the feeling of tightness when moving. If left untreated, some rigidity may occur.
- Elbow-the frequency of diagnosis is much lower.In most cases, this diagnosis is made in certain occupations: miners, blacksmiths, and people who use vibrating tools. Symptoms include pain in the elbow and limitation of movement when the upper limbs are flexed and extended.
- Arthropathy of the hand joints.Usually, it is diagnosed in the wrist joint of the first finger (this is the person most vulnerable to trauma in daily life). It is characterized by dull pain on the outer surface of the palm that can radiate to the thumb.
- Arthropathy of the finger joints.It is most common for people who are engaged in small jobs (embroidery, knitting, etc. ). Excessive growth of bone tissue leads to the formation of Heberden and Bouchard nodules. Patients rarely notice joint pain (sometimes when the weather changes) and exercise stiffness.
There is no single etiological factor that can lead to the development of this pathology. Osteoarthritis is a disease that slowly manifests itself in the context of the congenital structural characteristics of connective tissue, past diseases, and long-term exposure to microtrauma. Most chronic inflammation (arthritis) transforms in one way or another into a degenerative malnutrition process with persistent inflammation and recurrence. Special attention should be paid to the age group of joint disease, which accounts for the largest number of patients diagnosed.
Although this disease does not have a single origin, there are many factors that cause it.The biggest clinical significance is:
- Sedentary lifestyle(Sedentary, laziness, etc. ).
- Excessive physical activity,Physical labor, professional sports (sports injuries have a negative impact on the health of all sectors).
- Overweight(The joints are old and unable to cope with this weight).
- Venous insufficiency.
- Professional relatedupright, There is no action.
- Hormonal imbalance and damage to endocrine system organs(Diabetes, vascular atherosclerosis, obesity, etc. ).
- Improper nutrition(Daily intake of fat, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals is insufficient).
- Smoking and alcohol abuse.
- Weighed heredity.
Due to the influence of one or more of the above-mentioned factors, the cartilage tissue covering the articular surface of the bone began to be gradually destroyed. At first, it became thinner and less elastic, after which it broke completely. The subchondral bone tissue is in contact with the bone surface, so it is destroyed under the action of friction. The protective response of bone tissue causes it to grow (especially along the edges of the joint), which significantly limits the mobility of the joint and causes it to deform.
Joint cells have a characteristic-they can respond quickly to any injury, even minor injuries. Damaged cells actively synthesize anti-inflammatory cytokines, so the destruction of cartilage and bone is characterized by aseptic inflammation in the synovium. Frequent recurrence of pathology leads to aggravation of inflammation, so hard tissue cells begin to die more densely, which contributes to the progression of the disease.
Arthropathy can last for a long time without any clinical symptoms. Patients do not even suspect that their joints are undergoing degenerative changes in mobility. Usually, the first symptoms appear after the pathology is high or inflammation increases. There are many types of symptoms, depending on the time of occurrence and the characteristics of the performance.
After a person engages in physical activity (exercise, jogging, non-stop stepping, climbing stairs, etc. ), the damaged joint area begins to ache. In the morning, after being in a static state for a long time, the first "feeling of beginning pain" appeared, accompanied by a slight stiffness.Eliminate inconvenienceYou need to warm up for a while. Pain is painful or dull, not too strong. Due to poor clinical performance, patients rarely seek medical advice in the early stages. Many people start to heal themselves and experience various treatment techniques that only aggravate the current situation. However, in the early stages, this disease has the most favorable prognosis and a high chance of complete recovery without any consequences. Therefore, if any sensation in the joints is detected, it is strongly recommended to make an appointment with a doctor.
Pain gradually increases, Magnified by weather changes. Not only do they appear in the morning, but they will continue throughout the day. Patients cannot fall asleep completely, and many (especially elderly) notice bone soreness and muscle soreness. The soreness will spread to the entire limb and radiate to the surrounding area. People with this problem will quickly feel tired even if they walk a short distance, the formation of complex bends and stiffness in the joints. Many people notice the instability of the injured limb, which is why they form an uncertain and gentle gait.
Arthropathy of the knee joint is characterized by a characteristic contraction, which is caused by the friction between the articular surfaces. As bone tissue grows along the edges, the knee gradually begins to deform. The patient tries to restrict any movement, which can cause muscle atrophy. This in turn makes the gait more unstable and cautious. Osteoarthritis of the upper limbs is usually the result of injury or chronic arthritis. The most obvious deformity was observed in the interphalangeal joints of the hand. Bouchard and Heberden nodules are formed on the fingers, and the hand itself becomes square.
Due to this factDegenerative malnutritionAs time progresses gradually, even the appearance of dangerous clinical symptoms may be overlooked. This has greatly exacerbated the current situation and worsened the prognosis of recovery. These symptoms are:
- Limb swelling and constant pain-Indicates active inflammation that requires urgent medical attention.
- Joint deformities, So the gait changes or the usual movements cannot be performed.
- Myalgia and bone pain.
- Erratic pace, Severe limitation of mobility during flexion and extension.
- Pain syndrome becomes permanentIt does not subside at night or at night, and radiates to surrounding areas.
Bachelor of Science
In orthopedic practice, it is customary to distinguish the clinical and radiological degrees of arthropathy according to the Kellgren-Lawrence classification:
- zero.The person will not feel any pain or discomfort when walking (even long distances). On the X-ray image, no pathological changes were detected.
- Initial (suspicious).With prolonged walking, a moderate degree of dull pain will occur. Some patients will notice a slight crunch when bending their limbs. X-ray examination revealed the first signs of pathology: narrowing of the joint space and small areas of marginal bone defects.
- light.The pain syndrome becomes more pronounced, appearing in the morning accompanied by stiffness. Pain increases with exercise. X-rays showed significant narrowing of the joint space and a small amount of bone growth (osteophytes).
- Moderate (degraded).The painful feeling not only appears in the morning, but also in the evening. Myalgia and soreness in the bones are combined. Patients sleep poorly and often pay attention to swelling of the affected joints. X-rays show the narrowing of the joint space and the progression of osteophyte growth, as well as an increase in bone density.
- Severely deformed).Pain syndrome can become permanent, and it is not always stopped by taking anesthetics. Any exercise will increase the pain, and a strong crunch will be heard when bending. Muscle atrophy is also added, and joint deformities develop. X-ray examination showed that the joint space was significantly narrowed, and the edge of the joint surface was significantly enlarged, causing deformation changes.
All degenerative diseases are characterized by slowness and usually asymptomatic (especially in the early stages). Pain increases when weather conditions change (humidity, wind, or temperature drop) and the inflammatory process begins. Inflammation is characterized by swelling, skin flushing, pain, and swelling. Therefore, if there are signs of an inflammatory process, you must seek qualified medical help immediately. Provide independencefirst aidUse the following method:
- Take any painkillers.
- Apply anesthetic ointment or gel to the skin.
- Make sure the limbs are still (until the pain disappears).
In order to make a diagnosis, high-precision inspection methods are used to detect even small pathological changes. In the clinic, the specialist conducts a thorough examination of the patient and determines the current state of the joints through vision and palpation (external signs of inflammation: swelling, skin redness, soreness, congestion). After that, a laboratory and instrument diagnosis are assigned, which allows you to fully understand the extent of the lesion. Laboratory research includes:
- General, biochemical and immune blood tests.Changes in the blood can confirm the presence of inflammation and determine the cause of the development of the disease (metabolic disorders, autoimmune reactions, etc. ).
- C-reactive protein.
- Intra-articular effusionDetect infections and their susceptibility to antibiotics.
Instrument diagnosis includes the following procedures:
- Ultrasound and MRI of the joints.It can detect changes in soft joints and tissues around the joints.
- X-ray and CT.The information content is different when searching for changes in bone tissue. Today, it is the preferred method of diagnosis, and it is the basis for the diagnosis of joint disease.
- Arthroscopy.This is done when there are signs of inflammation.
- Flash scan.It involves the introduction of radiopharmaceuticals to assess the state of bones and their metabolism.
The drug prescription is aimed at alleviating the pain syndrome, inhibiting its progression and restoring joint function.To combat soreness, use the following methods:
- Analgesics in the NSAID group.The type, release form and dosage of the drug are selected by the doctor according to individual circumstances. The choice depends on the severity of the pain, age, gender and other factors. The most commonly prescribed medications are painkillers. Usually, they are taken orally in the form of tablets, but injections or ointments can also be used.
- Muscle relaxants.They are necessary to relieve muscle spasms around the joints. In this way, pain can also be reduced and normal blood circulation in the joints can be restored.
- Neurotrophic B vitamins.This is the social component of basic therapy. B vitamins help normalize the peripheral nervous system and can also suppress pain.
- Analgesia is blocked.Usually, they are used for obvious acute pain, which cannot be eliminated by taking the above-mentioned drugs. In this case, use a solution that is injected into the most painful place.
Arthropathy treatmentIf you don't take medicines that help restore joint function, your knee or any other joint will be incomplete. To this end, the following personnel have been appointed:
- Cartilage protective agent.Their reception can restore cartilage tissue and improve blood circulation. It is taken in the form of ointments, injections and tablets.
- Hyaluronic acid.The drug is injected directly into the joint cavity to exert the therapeutic effect at the fastest speed. Its main purpose is to increase the viscosity of joint fluid and prevent damage to the joint surface of bones.
It is important to understandTake medicine-This is not a panacea, nor is it the only way to recover. In order to eliminate pain, increase joint mobility and improve quality of life, you need to devote enough time to non-drug treatment. It is necessary to maintain a proper balance between proper physical activity and good rest. You can achieve this result by sticking to your daily exercise. To achieve the desired results, you must follow the following training rules:
- Must go to class every day, Regardless of health, mood, weather, living environment and other factors.
- All movements are carried out very smoothly and slowly.
- If the pain increases during training, the lesson is stopped.
Regardless of the degree of arthropathy of the knee joint, the patient needsGive up running(Especially short-distance high-speed), jumping, outdoor sports (soccer, basketball, volleyball, etc. ), weight lifting (barbell, etc. ), long-term immobility. In this case, the best options are swimming, yoga (preferably with a coach who understands joint problems), and Pilates.
For arthropathy, physical therapy is required. It helps to improve health and fight possible complications of disease.Physical therapy includes:
- Use analgesic solution for electrophoresis or ultrasonic electrophoresis.
- Use paraffin for heating applications(Only if there is no inflammatory process).
- Dason verification-Exposure to high-frequency and low-frequency power currents to stimulate blood circulation and muscle relaxation.
- Magnetic therapy and laser therapy.
- Electrical stimulation. . . This is an effective physical therapy designed to restore muscle volume and strength.
Leech therapy is also allowed-Leech treatment. The saliva of these animals contains a lot of enzymes, which can dilate blood vessels and normalize metabolic processes. In addition, it also helps to dissolve necrotic tissue and clean the joint cavity.
It is very difficult to deal with joint disease and its consequences. However, it is much easier to prevent it. To do this, it is enough to stick to simple recommendations that will help protect healthy joints for many years.Among them:
- Active lifestyle.Even if professional activities are related to sitting or resting for a long time, it is necessary to set aside time (at least a few minutes a day) for a simple warm-up.
- Exercise regularly or swim in the pool. . . These are excellent comprehensive strengthening exercises that help keep the muscles and musculoskeletal system in a healthy state.
- Correct and balanced nutrition.You must monitor your daily diet. It should include adequate amounts of protein, fat, carbohydrates, trace elements and vitamins. It is worth increasing the intake of foods rich in omega-3 (fish, red game, avocado, walnuts, flaxseed, etc. ) and collagen (aspic, soup, etc. ).
- Monitor your weight.It is necessary to keep the weight within the normal range to prevent the development of obesity (for this, you also need to exercise and eat correctly).
- Wear comfortable shoes.
- Give up sports,Accompanied by a high risk of injury.
Arthropathy-This is a very serious disease that can lead to serious consequences and complications. However, you can fight against it, live fully and complete your daily work. Modern medicine provides many treatment techniques aimed at improving the condition of patients and restoring their motor functions. However, it is important to remember that the quality of life for joint disease depends on the duration of treatment and the implementation of medical recommendations. Early medical consultation allows you to identify the first degenerative changes and eliminate them in time. Therefore, you do not need to self-medicate or postpone seeing a doctor. If you find the first symptoms of joint disease, you must see a doctor immediately and make a thorough diagnosis.